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Molecular Structure

Molecular Structure DefinitionMolecular Structure is defined as the location of atom, ions, or groups relative to one another in a molecule.


It also explains the number and chemical bond location. The substance molecular structure is described by the combination of nuclei which contains proton and neutron, and electrons that comprise its constitute molecules. This includes the molecular geometry which is the three dimensional arrangement of atoms and also determines the several substance properties such as its polarity, reactivity, color, magnetism, phase of matter, and biological activity, etc., electron properties of the bonds, and the further molecular properties. 


Many experimental methods are used to determine the molecular structure that includes x-ray diffraction, electron diffraction, electron spin resonance, nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectrometry. The quantum theory and method of molecular modeling is used to predict and explain the molecular structure.In 1897 British scientist Joseph John Thomson discovery of electrons shows that the atoms can split in to even smaller parts. 


He was the Cavendish professor of experimental physics at Cambridge University. He worked in various aspects of the conduction of electricity through gases. John Thomson discovers the electrons by using the cathode ray scope. He reported that all matter contains particles of the same kind that are much less massive than the atoms of which they form a part and are called as corpuscles but now they are called as electrons. He was also reported that cathode rays were streams of electrons, actually negatively charged particles in motion. 


 Water molecular structure is very simple (H2O) but its physical and chemical properties are extraordinarily complicated. It consists of two compounds such as two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom and is exiting in gas, liquid, and solid phases. They are tiny and V shaped molecular with diameter of about 2.75A and is polar covalently bonded within molecule. The three atoms H-O-H make an angle about 104.5 degrees. The center of each hydrogen atom is about 0.0957nm from the center of the oxygen atom, since the oxygen atom is more electronegative than hydrogen atoms. 


The oxygen atom end up with the a partial negative charge and the hydrogen atoms end up with a partial positive charge and this separation of charges may gives a net polar dipole moment on the molecule, the polar dipole moment is approximately about 1.85 Debye units.Rutherford nuclear model was discovered by the Ernest Rutherford who is the father of nuclear physics. In 1911, He overturned the Joseph John Thomson model of atom with his gold foil experiment in which he demonstrated that the atom has a tiny, massive nucleus. He describes the theoretical concept of atom and the phenomena of radioactivity.