Ductility is one of the mechanical properties of metals that describe the extent to which the solid materials are deformed plastically without any fracture.
The property of the metals that allows the metals for its reduction in its cross-sectional area without any fracture. A tensile test determines a metals ductile nature, which is performed by the elongation percentage determination.
Reason behind the metals ductile natureDuctility of metals is due to the presence of electrons that are scattered and move around all through the metals entire structure. Due to this, the metal does not crack upon pulling or smashing because of the absence of similarly charged ions that are facing each other for repulsion. Electrons are present moving like a sea in the metal causing no repulsion and hence the charges are not lined up even when the metal is pulled.
The metallic bonds present in the metals are also responsible for the elevated levels of ductility. The valence shell electrons in the metallic bond are delocalized which is among many atoms. These electrons that are delocalized from the valence shell help in the sliding of the metals one over the other without having been subjected to very strong repulsive forces allowing shattering of other materials.
Use of metals due to its ductile nature:The property of ductility is highly essential since this is used for making wires and also helps in tubing. Metals that are ductile are of great importance for their usage in aircraft since it is easy to make and are resistant to failure under shock loads. Ductility is similar to malleability but both these properties do not correlate with each other.
Ductile metalsConclusion for metals ductile nature:To conclude, the ductility of the metals may be explained due to the presence of flow of electrons similar to a sea, helping in the travelling of the electrons freely that carries electrical current with minimal possible resistance. This model of sea of electrons explains the ductile property of the metals. The bonds between the metal atoms have no specific orientation like the bonds in organic molecules, there are free movement of the metal atoms sliding upon each other without any breakage or fracture and are seen bound to each other conferring the mechanical property of ductility.