Carbon is an element having symbol C and atomic number 6. It is a naturally abundant non metallic element which occurs in many inorganic and organic compounds.
It exists freely as Graphite and Diamond and as a constituent of coal, limestone and petroleum. It has the capacity of chemical self bonding which forms an enormous number of chemically, biologically and commercially important molecules.
The structure of carbon is:structure of carbonHistory of element of carbon:Carbon's discovery is prehistoric and the element is distributed widely in nature. It is abundantly found in the stars, sun and atmospheres of many planets. It can also be located in a few meteorites as very small diamonds that are not visible to the naked eye.
The old volcanic pipes of South Africa are home for natural diamonds in kimberlite. About 30% of all industrial diamonds which are used in U.S. are now made artificially. Cape of Good Hope is also recently discovered as a dource for diamonds which can be ontained from the ocean bed.More about element of carbon:Carbon is the sixth rich element which is found in universe.
This element is mainly obtained from the deposits of coal (coal deposits). There are three allotropes of carbon which occurs naturally. These are:AmorphousGraphite, andDiamond.Amorphous carbon:It is formed by burning carbon material completely in presence of insufficient quantity of oxygen. This black residual is called as lampblack and also known as channel black, gas black or carbon black.
This is used in commercial production of rubber, ink and paints and cores of dry batteries.Graphite:This is the softest material. It is the form of carbon which can be used like a lubricant. It occurs in two different types of forms. These are alpha form and beta form. The physical properties of both forms are identical but their crystal structures are different. By mechanical treatment, the hexagonal alpha type can be converted to the beta and the beta form reverts to the alpha on heating it above 1000oC.Diamond:It is mainly used for making jewellery.
Graphite is squeezed for making small diamonds under high pressure and temperature. This is done for several weeks or days. The main use of this is creation of diamond tipped saw blades.