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Gallium Chemistry

Galliumis the only metal which is liquid near room temperature. This metal is very much is useful in high temperature thermometers because it has low vapor pressure at higher temperature. It appears as a silvery solid material.  Pure form of gallium is attacked slowly by mineral acids.  For light emitting diodes gallium is a key component.   

Gallium chemistry is similar to alumina.

Gallium metal pieces:                                      Gallium drops:

Galliummetalpieces            Galliumdroplets

Isotopes of gallium chemistry:

There are two isotopes of gallium

Gallium-69 accounts for 60.108% of the natural abundance of the element.

Gallium-71 accounts for 39.8% of the natural abundance of the element.

Sources of gallium chemistry:

Itis trace element in sphalerite, diaspore, bauxite, Coal and germinate. Flue dusts also contain 1.5% gallium. It can also be obtained by electrolysis of its hydroxide in a potassium hydroxide solution.

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Properties of gallium chemistry:

  • Elemental state of gallium: Metal

  • Atomic weigh of galliumt: 63.7

  • Density (g/cc) of gallium: 5.91

  • Melting Point (K) of gallium: 302.93

  • Boiling Point (K) of gallium: 2676

  • Appearance: soft, blue-white metal

  • Atomic Radius (pm): 141

  • Atomic Volume (cc/mol) of gallium: 11.8

  • Covalent Radius (pm) of gallium: 126

  • Ionic Radius of gallium: 62 (+3e) 81 (+1e)

  • Specific Heat of gallium at 20°C J/g mol): 0.372

  • Fusion Heat of gallium (kJ/mol): 5.59

  • Evaporation Heat of gallium (kJ/mol): 270.3

  • Debye Temperature of gallium (K): 240.00

  • Pauling Negativity Number of gallium: 1.81

  • First Ionizing Energy of gallium (kJ/mol): 578.7

  • Oxidation State of gallium : 3

  • Lattice Structure of gallium: Orthorhombic

  • Lattice Constant (Å) of gallium: 4.510

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General properties of gallium chloride:

  • It has 29.780C melting point and it decomposes at 24030C.

  • At 29.80C it has 6.095 specific gravity.

  • Gallium has low vapor pressure even at higher temperature.

  • Below its freezing point gallium has a strong tendency to super cool.

  • Gallium in its pure form appears silvery in color and it exhibits conchoidal fracture.

  • Galliumon solidifying expands 3.1% hence it should not stored in a metal or glass container that can break upon its solidification.


Applications of gallium chemistry:

  • It is mainly used in high temperature thermometers because it is liquid at room temperature.

  • Gallium is used in doping semiconductors also for production of solid state devices.

  • Gallium along with arsenide is used to convert electricity into coherent light.

  • It is used to make commercial ultraviolet activated powder phosphors.