First let us understand the fundamentals of the experiment for measuring the voltage across a resistor.Required Apparatus: Resistor, voltmeter, a voltage source (Battery), Voltmeter, connecting wires.
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Resistor: A Resistor is an electrical component that resists the flow of electric current in a circuit. It is a two terminal device through which the current is passed. The unit to measure a Resistor is in ohms after the Ohms law. A Resistor is generally connected in a circuit to maintain a known safe value of current.Voltmeter: Voltmeter is an electrical device to measure the potential difference between two points in an electric circuit.
Here we will measure potential difference between two terminals of a resistor so as to measure the drop in voltage across the resistor. The voltmeter is connected parallel to the resistor in the circuit to measure the voltage drop across it.voltage source: A voltage source is a device or any system that produces voltage or electromotive force between its two terminals. An example is a battery or a cell.
Description to Measure Voltage Across ResistorDescription: The Arrangement of the components to measure the voltage across the resistor is done as shown in the above diagram. As we connect the battery with the resistor the current starts flowing from the positive terminal (+) of the battery and flows through the resistor to the negative terminal (-) of the battery.
Note that the voltmeter connected across the resistor in parallel measures the voltage across the resistor.Now, we know that voltage drop across the resistor is a linear function of the current flowing through it, that is V = I x R where V is voltage drop across the resistor , I is the current flowing in the circuit, and R is the value of resistor in ohms. The reading on the voltmeter will be approximately same as calculated with the above formula.The reduction of current flow in the circuit is directly proportional to resistance in ohms of the resistor.When the current flow across the resistor then there will be voltage drop across the resistor.