Capacitance is the capability of an element to store electric charge within it. A capacitor stored electric energy in the form of electric field being established by the two polarities of charges on the two electrodes of a capacitor. Quantitatively capacitance is a measure of charge per unit voltage that can be stored in an element. The unit of capacitance (C) in S.I. system is Farad (F). The capacitance is said to be one Farad provided one coulomb of charge can be stored with one volt across the two electrodes of the element. The element, which has capacitance, is called capacitor.
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q being the amount of charge that can be stored in a capacitor of capacitance C against a potential difference of v volts, it can be write as
C = q / v
1 Farad = 1 coulomb / 1 volt
Therefore, when one coulomb additional charge increases potential through one volt then the capacitance of conductor is called one Farad. Farad is actually a very large unit of capacitance, so other smaller units are common in use, which are1 microfarad (μF) =` 10^-6 ` farad1 micro micro farad ( μμF) = `10^-12`farad1μμF is also known as 1 Pico farad (1PF = `10^-12` farad)Unit of Capacitance in C.g.s. SystemIn C.G.S.
unit it is measured in terms of stat-Farad or e.s.u. of capacitanceTherefore, from C = q/v1 stat-Farad = 1 stat-coulomb / 1 stat –volt
Therefore, when one stat-coulomb increases potential through one stat-volt capacitance is called one stat-Farad.Relation between Farad and Stat-farad1 farad = 1 coulomb/ 1 volt = `3xx10^3 ` stat coulomb `/` `1/300 ` stat volt1 farad = `9xx10^11 ` stat-faradAn ideal capacitor has no dielectric loss and is symbolically represented as shown in the figure. In practice, however, there is always some power loss and in order to take this loss into account, it is usual to show a resistor in series or in parallel with an ideal capacitor as shown in the figure.Ideal and practical capacitor
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